Wireless IP


The purpose of electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the ground surface. From these measurements, the true resistivity of the subsurface can be estimated. The ground resistivity is related to various geological parameters such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock. Electrical resistivity surveys have been used for many decades in hydrogeological, mining and geotechnical investigations. More recently, it has been used for environmental surveys.

Induced Polarization (IP) method is closely related to the resistivity method. IP method requires measuring instruments that are more sensitive than the normal resistivity method, as well has significantly higher currents. IP surveys are common in mineral exploration and this method is also able to detect conductive minerals of very low concentrations that might otherwise be missed by resistivity or EM surveys. IP method uses alternating currents (in the frequency domain) of much higher frequencies than standard resistivity surveys. Electromagnetic coupling is a serious problem and to minimize the EM coupling, the dipole-dipole (or pole-dipole) array is commonly used.

The common applications of these methods are to:

  • Investigate groundwater sources
  • Characterize soil and rock types
  • Delineate subsurface contaminants
  • Map bedrock topography
  • Investigate the thickness of peat
  • Determine the existence of subsurface voids
  • Identify buried utilities and infrastructure
  • Investigate archeological sites
  • Image geological structures, fracture and fault
  • Delineate potential aggregate resources
  • Complement electrical grounding studies at new and existing pipeline and electrical transmission facilities.


Resistivity/Induced Polarization Systems
  • Walcer Model TX KW10
  • GDD IP Transmitter & Receiver
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